All the major Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Fedora, etc uses systemd init system today for managing and controlling various services while the system is running. In this guide, we explain the systemd commands which you can use to manage systemd services using systemctl.
- Service management concept
- List of Unit types
- Manage Systemd Services Using systemctl
- List Services
- Show Service Status
- Start a service
- Stop a service
- Restart and reload a service
- Enable a service
- Disable a service
Service management concept
Systemd is the init system and service manager of the modern Linux systems. Init system is the first process that starts when you power on your system and keeps on running until it is shutdown.
The main purpose of systemd as init system is to initialize various system components just after the Linux kernel is booted at the beginning. Along with that, when the system is running it also manages various services and daemons such as ssh daemon, network manager, etc.
The systemd works on the unit files. There are different types of unit files based on the purpose and resources. For example, the services have unit files with
.service extensions, whereas device unit files have
.device extensions. The systemctl command of systemd is used to manage the unit files.
Important Unit files and description
|Service unit||.service||A system service.|
|Target unit||.target||A group of systemd units.|
|Automount unit||.automount||A file system automount point.|
|Device unit||.device||A device file recognized by the kernel.|
|Mount unit||.mount||A file system mount point.|
|Path unit||.path||A file or directory in a file system.|
|Scope unit||.scope||An externally created process.|
|Slice unit||.slice||A group of hierarchically organized units that manage system processes.|
|Snapshot unit||.snapshot||A saved state of the systemd manager.|
|Socket unit||.socket||An inter-process communication socket.|
|Swap unit||.swap||A swap device or a swap file.|
|Timer unit||.timer||A systemd timer.|
Where is the unit files stored?
The unit files are stored in two places ideally in a Linux system. The files created at run time, boot time are stored in
/run/systemd/system/. The unit files you create manually (e.g.
systemctl enable command) is stored at
/etc/systemd/system/ path takes precedance over the run time unit files present at
There is another path where systemd keeps the system’s copy of the service unit files –
Manage Systemd Services Using systemctl
First, let’s take a look at how you can list down the services, check their status, etc. This is required if you want to understand the state of your system for investigation purposes.
To list out all systemd active units, you can use the below command.
This command gives a large output with the below headings. Scroll using arrow keys (up, down, left, and right) to view the entire output.
- UNIT – Name of the systemd unit
- Load – Reflects whether systemd parsed the config file of the unit and it is loaded in memory
- ACTIVE – Unit state (high-level status).
- SUB – Unit state (low-level status)
- DESCRIPTION – Description of the unit.
For example, the ACTIVE value can be active where the SUB level can be many such as running, listening, dead, and active.
More example commands:
systemctl list-units --all
systemctl list-units --all --state=inactive
To list all units of type service, use the below command.
systemctl list-units --type=service
You can combine additional parameters as well. For example, if you want to find out the services that are running, use the below command.
systemctl list-units --type=service --state=running
The other combinations of
state values which you can use are –
Additionally, you can list all unit files using the below commands.
Managing unit files are a different topic which I would cover in the next article.
Show Service Status
To find out the status of a service, use the
below command. For this guide, I have used the
NetworkManager service which controls the network management of a system. You can replace the NetworkManager with your own service name. All the following commands require sudo privilege. If you do not know the service name, check the above commands to display all service units, then filter out using the
systemctl status NetworkManager.service
Note that, you can omit the .service at the end from the service name. The systemd is clever enough to understand the command!
In the above example, you can see all information is provided in the command. It also has the CGroup value to identify the user groups as well – which is needed in a server environment.
Some more example commands:
systemctl is-active NetworkManager.service
systemctl is-enabled NetworkManager.service
systemctl is-failed NetworkManager.service
Start a service
Starting a systemd service is easy. Run below command with start and service name. The command starts the service.
sudo systemctl start NetworkManager.service
Stop a service
Using the stop parameter you can stop a service. For example:
sudo systemctl stop NetworkManager.service
Be cautious while stopping a service. Make sure you know what are you doing.
Restart and reload a service
The systemd provides options to configure a service in such a way that it can restart or reloads without restarts. The restart parameter restart the services and the reload uses configuration files
sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service
sudo systemctl reload NetworkManager.service
Enable and disable a service
If you created a new service or installed any applications which work via services, then starting them using the start command will not enable it again in the next boot. So, if you want the systemd to start a service when the system boos you need to use the enable command. The same for disabling as well when you want to disable a service at boot time.
sudo systemctl enable NetworkManager.service
The enable command creates a symlink from /etc/systemd/system to the target locations.
To disable the service, use below command.
sudo systemctl disable NetworkManager.service
The systemd services and their associated commands have many additional options as well. The systemd is a robust and important component of modern Linux systems. I hope this guide helps you to troubleshoot your desktop or servers when required in Linux. There are many additional features that systemd provides – such as target files, modifying the service unit files, etc – which I will cover in the next set of articles. All the articles are tagged with systemd for easy browsing.